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Chisong City (Beijing) Technology Co., Ltd. > Technical Articles > Chisong City: Reliability Test

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Red Pine City: Reliability Test

Read: 410 Release time: 2019/11/20

产品测试 Product test

Product testing is an effective guarantee for the company's product quality. It runs through the entire product life cycle and mainly includes the following three categories:

产品功能/性能测试: Ø Product function / performance test:

Verify that the product meets the functional and performance indicators in the design specification;

可靠性测试: Ø Reliability test:

Testing product life and reliability, and finding out the problems of the product in terms of raw materials, structure, technology, environmental adaptability, etc., are an indispensable link before product mass production

量产自动化测试: Ø Mass production automated test:

Test products in batches to eliminate defective products caused by production process defects.

The figure below describes the entire product development cycle. This article focuses on the relevant parts of the reliability test. 1 产品开发流程 Figure 1 Product development process

2. Reliability test

产品 由于 原材料、结构、工艺、环境适应性等方面问题 造成的早期失效,确保产品的使用期寿命达到设计预期。 The life cycle of the product is shown in the figure below. There are three stages. The purpose of reliability testing is to eliminate the early failure of the product due to issues such as raw materials, structure, process, and environmental adaptability , and to ensure that the product's service life reaches the design expectations. 2 产品生命周期 Figure 2 Product life cycle

3.Common reliability test specifications

Industrial-grade reliability tests commonly used in electronic products can be divided into the following categories

环境应力测试 Ø Environmental stress test

电测试 Ø Electrical test

机械应力测试 Ø Mechanical stress test

综合测试 Ø Comprehensive test

环境应力测试规范 3.1 Environmental stress test specifications

1 Environmental stress test specifications
1.01 JESD22-A100-B Cycled Temperature-Humidity-Bias Life Test
1.02 JESD22-A101-B Steady State Temperature Humidity Bias Life Test
1.03 gao accelerated cooking test JESD22-A102-C Accelerated Moisture Resistance -Unbiased Autoclave
1.04 gao temperature storage life test JESD22-A103-A Test Method A103-A High Temperature Storage Life
1.05 gao temperature storage life test JESD22-A103-B High Temperature Storage Life
1.06 Temperature Cycling JESD22-A104-B Temperature Cycling
1.07 EIA / JESD22-A105-B Test Method A105-B Power and Temperature Cycling
1.08 Thermal shock JESD22-A106-A Test Method A106-A Thermal Shock
1.09 Salt spray test JESD22-A107-A Salt Atmosphere
1.1 gao temperature working life test JESD22-A108-B Temperature, Bias, and Operating Life
1.11 gao accelerated life test JESD22-A110-B Test Method A110-B Highly-Accelerated Temperature and Humidity Stress Test (HAST)
1.12 JESD22-A113-B Preconditioning of Nonhermetic Surface Mount Devices Prior to Reliability Testing
1.13 Accelerated Moisture Resistance-Unbiased HAST
1.14 JESD22-B106-B Test Method B106-B Resistance to Soldering Temperature for Through-Hole Mounted Devices
1.15 EIA / JESD47 Stress-Test-Driven Qualification of Integrated Circuits
1.16 Temperature Cycling JESD22-A104C Temperature Cycling

1 环境应力测试项目 Table 1 Environmental stress test items

电测试规范 3.2 Electrical test specifications


Electrical test specifications


Electrostatic discharge sensitivity test under human body model

JESD22-A114-B Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Sensitivity Testing Human Body Model (HBM)


Electrostatic discharge sensitivity test under machine model conditions

EIA / JESD22-A115-A Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Sensitivity Testing Machine Model (MM)


Wipe and data saving test of EEPROM

JESD22-A117 Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM (EEPROM) Program / Erase Endurance and Data Retention Test


IC device latch-up test

EIA / JESD78 IC Latch-Up Test


Antistatic discharge test of microelectronic devices under the condition of charge induction model

JESD22-C101-A Field-Induced Charged-Device Model Test Method for Electrostatic-Discharge-Withstand Thresholds of Microelectronic Components

2 电测试项目 Table 2 Electrical test items

3 机械应力测试规范 3.3 Mechanical stress test specifications 3 Mechanical stress test specifications
3.01 JESD-22-B103-A Test Method B103-A Vibration, Variable Frequency
3.02 Mechanical Shock JESD22-B104-A Test Method B104-A Mechanical Shock
3.03 EIA / JESD22-B116 Wire Bond Shear Test Method
3.04 Shear Test of Solder Ball JESD22-B117 BGA Ball Shear BGA
3.05 Bend Test JESD22B113 Board Level Cyclic Bend Test Method for Interconnect Reliability Characterization of Components for Handheld Electronic Products
3.06 Drop Test JESD22-B111 Board Level Drop Test Method of Components for Handheld Electronic Products, July 2003 [Text-jd039]

3 机械应力测试项目 Table 3 Mechanical stress test items

综合测试规范 4 综合测试规范 3.4 Comprehensive test specifications 4 Comprehensive test specifications
4.01 JEDEC Standard No. 22-A109 Test Method A109 Hermeticity
4.02 Test Method for the Measurement of Moisture Diffusivity and Water Solubility in Organic Materials Used in Integrated Circuits
4.03 JESD22-B100-A Physical Dimensions
4.04 Visual Inspection JESD22-B101 Test Method B101 External Visual
4.05 Solderability Test Method EIA / JESD22-B102-C Solderability Test Method
4.06 EIA / JESD22-B105-B Test Method B105-B Lead Integrity
4.07 Icon Endurance Test EIA / JESD22-B107-A Test Method B107-A Marking Permanency
4.08 Coplanarity Test for Surface Mount Semiconductor Devices JESD22-B108 Coplanarity Test for Surface-Mount Semiconductor Devices

4 综合测试项目 Table 4 Comprehensive test items

其他规范 5 其它规范 3.5 Other specifications 5 Other specifications
5.01 JEP113-B Symbol and Labels for Moisture-Sensitive Devices
5.02 EIA / JEP122 Failure Mechanisms and Models for Silicon Semiconductors Devices
5.03 IPC / JEDEC J-STD-020A Moisture / Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices
5.04 IPC / JEDEC J-STD-033 Standard for Handling, Packing, Shipping and Use of Moisture / Reflow Sensitive Surface Mount Devices
5.05 EIA / JEP103-A Suggested Product-Documentation Classifications and Disclaimers
5.06 Supersedes IPC / JEDEC J-STD-020D for Unsealed Surface Mount Semiconductor Devices for Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices

5 其他 Table 5 other

常用标准- JESD47: 集成电路压力测试规范 4. Commonly Used Standards- JESD47: Stress Test Specification for Integrated Circuits

JESD47 is a widely used reliability test standard in the field of industrial electronic products. It defines a series of test items for reliability testing of new products, new processes or process changes.

4.1   references





Equipment and appliance parts plastic materials flammability test.


ASTM D2863

Determination of flammability of plastics by oxygen index method


IEC Publication 695

Fire test



Fab Process Verification Guidelines



Moisture / Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermetic Solid
. State Surface-Mount Devices .


系列 JESD22 series

Reliability test items for packaging equipment



Guidelines for User Notification of Product / process Changes by Semiconductor Suppliers.



Silicon device information (different products) requires reference standards



Criteria for calculating the early life failure rate of electronic products



Chip Latch Up test.



Method for calculating the unit failure rate of FIT (failed once for 10 hours)



Evaluation of electrical parameters



Application Specific Qualification using Knowledge Based Test Methodology. , Application Specific Qualification using Knowledge Based Test Methodology.



. Methods for Developing Acceleration Models for Electronic Component Failure Mechanisms .



Semiconductor failure mechanism


43 JEP1 43

Qualification of solid state reliability assessment


EP150 J EP150

State Surface-Mount Components. Stress-Test-Driven Qualification of and Failure Mechanisms Associated with Assembled Solid State Surface-Mount Components.



Environmental Acceptance Requirements for Tin Whisker Susceptibility of Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes , Environmental Acceptance Requirements for Tin Whisker Susceptibility of Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes



Test method for whisker growth on tin and tin alloy surface coatings

6 JESD47 标准参考文献 Table 6 JESD47 Standard References

样品数计算 4.2 Number of samples

Χ 2 (2C+2, 0.1)] [1/LTPD – 0.5] + C N> = 0.5 [ χ 2 (2C + 2, 0.1)] [1 / LTPD – 0.5] + C
接受数量 , N= zui小样品数 , Χ 2 = Chi Squared distribution value 卡方分布值 for a 90% Confidence L evel , C = accepted quantity , N = zui small sample number , χ 2 = Chi Squared distribution value for a 90% Confidence L evel ,
and LTPD is the desired 90% confidence defect level.

3 LTPD抽样标准 Figure 3 LTPD sampling criteria

4.3 Early failure rate calculation

目的:ELFR ( Early Life Failure Rate)早期失效测试,主要反映出产品在zui初投入使用的几个月时间内产品的质量情况,评估产品及设计的稳定性,加速缺陷失效率,去除由于先天原因失效的产品。 Ø Purpose: ELFR (Early Life Failure Rate) early failure test mainly reflects the quality of the product within a few months of its initial use, evaluates the stability of the product and design, accelerates defect failure rate, and eliminates innate defects Caused by product failure.



testing time

Specific operation

Failure principle


(Early failure test)

J 温度控制在125度,被测产品上电,且为zui大工作电压(比额定工作电压gao5%—10%),芯片的引脚按照应用的状态进行搭接。 The temperature of the test T J is controlled at 125 degrees. The product under test is powered on and has a high operating voltage (5% -10% higher than the rated operating voltage). The pins of the chip are overlapped according to the application status.

48 h <t <168 h (valid reference time is 168h)

After performing the test under the specified conditions, Zui was able to conduct an electrical test within 12 hours (with a large delay within 24 hours) to determine the number of sample failures.

Defects in materials or processes include failures due to production such as oxide layer defects, metal engraving, ion contamination, etc.

7 早期失效测试 Table 7 Early failure tests

Sampling criteria: The samples for early failure testing need to be taken from at least three discrete batches of product, and consist of samples of representative quality. All samples should be assembled and collected at the same location using the same process. At 60% confidence, in units of failures per million (FPM), the figure below illustrates the small number of samples needed to achieve different early failure targets.

4 早期失效的抽样标准 Figure 4 Sampling criteria for early failure

4.4 Selection of test items when production process changes 5 工艺变化测试项目选择指导 Figure 5 Selection guide for process change test items

5 Reliability Test Solution-Smart Card Chip





# Lots / SS per lot

Duration / Accept

High Temperature Operating Life gao



TJ> = 125C Vcc> = Vcc max

3 Lots / 77 units

1000 hrs / 0 Fail

Early Life Failure Rate

Early failure rate




TJ> = 125C Vcc> = Vcc max

Refer to Section 4.3 ELFR

168 hrs

Low Temperature Operating Life



TJ <= 50C Vcc> = Vcc max

1 Lot / 32 units

1000 hrs / 0 Fail

High Temperature Storage Life

Gao temperature storage life



TA> = 150C

3 Lots / 25 units

1000 hrs / 0 Fail




Class I

r Class II O r Class II

1 Lot / 3 units

0 Fail

Electrical Parameter Assessment




3 Lots / 10 units

TA per datasheet

Human Body Model ESD



TA = 25 ° C

3 units


Charged Device Model ESD



TA = 25 ° C

3 units


Accelerated Soft Error Testing




TA = 25 ° C

3 units


"OR" System Soft Error Testing



TA = 25 ° C

Minimum of 1E + 06 Device Hrs or 10 fails.


D ata retention gao 温数据存储测试 Uncycled High Temperature D ata retention gao

17 JESD22-A1 17


12 5 °C TA> 12 5 ° C

Vcc> = Vcc max

3 lots / 77 units

1000 h / 0fail

循环耐力 Cycling Endurance

17 JESD22-A1 17


°C 和55 °C <=TJ<=85 °C 25 ° C and 55 ° C <= TJ <= 85 ° C

3 lots / 77 units

Spec. Max Up to Spec. Max

note (b) / 0Fails Cycles per note (b) / 0Fails

High Temperature data Postcycling High Temperature data

etention 循环 后gao 温数据存储测试 Gao temperature data storage test after Retention cycle

17 JESD22-A1 17


Refer to 4.5

3 lots / 39 units

Refer to 4.5

and read disturb低温保存和读取干扰 LowTemperature Retention and read disturb

17 JESD22-A1 17


°C TA = 25 ° C

3 lots / 38 units

Refer to 4.5

预处理 MSL Preconditioning



Perappropriate MSL level per



ElectricalTest (optional)

Humidity bias 加速式温湿度及偏压测试 Temperature2 Humidity bias accelerated temperature and humidity and bias test



Vcc>=Vcc max 85 ° C, 85% RH, Vcc> = Vcc max

3 Lots / 25 units

1000 hrs / 0 Fail

Humidity Bias Temperature2, 3 Humidity Bias

Temperature and Humidity Stress) gao 加速温湿度及偏压测试 (Highly Accelerated Temperature and Humidity Stress) gao



130 ° C / 110 ° C, 85% RH,

Vcc> = Vcc max

3 Lots / 25 units

hrs / 0 Fail 96 hrs / 0 Fail

低温循环测试) Temperature Cycling gao )



Refer to 4.7 TC

3 Lots / 25 units

Refer to 4.7 TC

Temperature/Humidity gao 加速温湿度测试 Unbiased Temperature / Humidity gao



130 ° C / 85% RH

110 ° C / 85% RH

3 Lots / 25 units

96 hrs / 0 Fail

12 智能卡可靠性测试方案 Table 12 Smart card reliability test plan

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